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Prof. Rohit Deshpande’s Collection:



Alvarez, José, and Nyssa Liebermann “Barbara Krakow Gallery,” Harvard Business School, 2013/2015.

The Barbara Krakow Gallery is a successful contemporary art gallery located in Boston. It utilizes a very rare “no haggle pricing” strategy and extended sales cycle when selling pieces to collectors. Though it remains profitable and very respected, the size and scope of the gallery will be brought into question when Barbara Krakow, its founder, retires and hands it over to her associate, Andrew Witkin.


Austin, Robert, Carl Stormer. “Miles Davis: Kind of Blue.”Harvard Business School, 2008.


Examines how successful companies can “jump to the next S-curve” through an analogy to the life’s work of Miles Davis, especially his paradigm-shattering Kind of Blue album in 1959. Students consider how and why Davis, who had already proven he was tops in his field, created a new disruptive innovation in the field of jazz, in the process creating the most commercially successful jazz album of all time. The case also delves deeply into the creative process, and Davis’s creative leadership and ability to cultivate talent (such as that of saxophonist John Coltrane)-many of the great jazz musicians of the 20th century came out of the informal “Miles Davis University.”


Avery, Jill. “The Tate’s Digital Transformation”. Harvard Business School, 2014/2017.

John Stack was the visionary Head of Digital Transformation at the Tate, a collection of four major art galleries in the UK, including Tate Modern, the most visited gallery devoted to modern and contemporary art in the world. Stack was the architect of the Tate’s “fifth gallery,” its online presence. Stack had guided the Tate through two digital strategy planning processes and his team had experienced much success in developing the Tate’s fifth gallery into a virtual place filled with immersive and engaging content, activities, experiences, and communities. Looking to the future, Stack was working to execute a new digital strategy, one that included digital as a dimension of everything the Tate did, both physically and virtually. This effort was raising important questions about organizational structure, marketing strategy, product and service design, and return on investment. What would it take to be a truly digital organization where digital was the norm?


Avery, Jill. “Christie’s and Leonardo da Vinci’s Salvator Mundi: The Value of a Brand”. Harvard Business School, 2019.

A 16th century Renaissance masterpiece, missing for 137 years, believed by many to have been destroyed and then rediscovered less than a decade ago, becomes the most expensive painting ever sold, all the while surrounded by controversy. Did the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci’s painting pay too much? Was it real? Did it matter? The sale of Leonardo’s painting allows students to reengineer brand equity to understand from what it is derived and how marketing actions influence changes in it. Methods for brand valuation can be discussed and issues related to branding in contemporary times, such as authenticity, legitimacy, authorship, craftsmanship, and storytelling can be used to show how brand value is built and destroyed. Brand partnerships, particularly between and among Leonardo, Christie’s auction house, the sellers, the experts who attributed the painting to Leonardo, and the celebrities used to market it, are dissected to understand how brand meaning and value transfer from one partner to another.



Avery, Jill, and Jim Rosenberg. “Denver Museum of Nature & Science”. Harvard Business School, 2015/2016.

Digital was on Vice President of Strategic Partnerships and Programs Bridget Coughlin’s mind these days. DMNS had been dabbling in digital for the past few years, but had never fully committed to it. The time had come to establish a strategic vision, and to decide whether to designate serious human and financial resources. It was time to make some decisions about the DMNS’ digital future. The digital discussion was taking place within a larger strategic conversation about the primacy of the onsite experience of the Museum and the need to get outside of its walls to reach new constituents. How should she balance onsite programming, offsite programming, and online programming to maximize attendance and deliver against the Museum’s mission? Was digital the magic pill that would allow the Museum to reach new audiences or was DMNS better off delivering a face-to-face museum experience within its own four walls or out on the streets of the Denver community?


Bang, Nupur Pavan, Kavil Ramachandran, Kandaswamy Bharathan. “Continuing the Legacy of Annapurna Studios”. Harvard Business School, 2020.

Annapurna Studios was founded by legendary Indian actor Akkineni Nageswara Rao (ANR) in Hyderabad in 1975. Over the years, Annapurna had grown to become a modern-day powerhouse in the field of entertainment and filmmaking. In 2019, it was well known for its state-of-the-art production facilities, creative content production, and film and media institute. ANR’s older son, Venkat joined the studio a few years after its inception but struggled to keep it afloat. Nagarjuna, ANR’s younger son, began helping out at the studio after finishing college, but the studio’s fortunes only changed in the mid-80s when Nagarjuna decided to become an actor In 1999, Venkat handed over management control of the studio to Nagarjuna. Their niece Supriya joined the business as a management executive. The studio had two divisions: operations and content creation. The operations division, which included post-production, editing and dubbing facilities, ran smoothly under the COO with minimal intervention from the family. In the content creation side of the business, the family’s presence was greater. Nagarjuna and Supriya made all the critical decisions related to content, guided by their business sense and passion. With the second generation of the family still at the helm of Annapurna Studios, the next generation’s involvement was relatively low. Chaitanya (Nagarjuna’s son) had started showing some interest, but the other members of the third generation were either not yet involved in the studio or were busy with their own acting careers. Nagarjuna was worried that the next generation might not have the same level of passion for the studio as the previous generations. He wanted to ensure that the studio’s legacy sustained into the future. What strategy should the studio to adopt to ensure its long-term survival in the risky and ever-changing film and entertainment business?


Barnes, Hazel. Arts activism, education, and therapies: transforming communities across Africa. Rodopi, 2014.

This second volume of research emanating from Drama for Life, University of the Witwatersrand, explores the transformative and healing qualities of the arts in South Africa, Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe. Essays on arts for social change illuminate the difficulties of conflict-resolution (in war-scarred countries, tertiary institutions, and child-offender programmes) to promote broader understanding of diversity and difference. Further essays focus on arts and healing, in which music therapy diagnoses, repairs, sustains, and enhances collective health. Intervention theatre – in prisons, fieldwork, and the ethics and politics of storytelling – is examined as a basis for collaboration with children and youth. The musical theatre traditions of Botswana’s San people are investigated, as well as the benefits of arts counselling with educators to alleviate psycho-social stress in classrooms. Important insights are provided into ways of applying the arts and raise questions of ethics, effectiveness, and apposite usage. Also treated is the role of aesthetics in the effectiveness of art, particularly in social contexts. Included are overviews of the ways in which the aesthetics of drama have changed over the past four decades and of the cohesive potential of the arts. How can arts practitioners engage in inter-cultural dialogue to facilitate healing? The energy and inventiveness of the playful mode engender new ways of contending with social issues, whereby the focus is on how theatre affects an audience and on how communication in applied theatre and drama can reach audiences more effectively.


Cabooter, Madelon. “Not Just Play: an outline of the “Art for Social Change” programme ”. European Journal of Intercultural Studies, 1999.


Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, Catherine Jane Wise. “Sotheby’s & Christie’s Inc.”. Harvard Business School, 2009/2010.

The fine art auction business has remained a duopoly over its 250 year history. The industry is dominated by Sotheby’s and Christie’s Inc. Curiously, neither competitor has been able to overtake the other by a notable margin despite the clear network effects of this platform business. As we enter unprecedented economic times, as technology pushes forward infiltrating almost all areas of business, and as new competitors fight to enter the fine art sales space, these two auction houses explore modifications to their business model. Some efforts by the two organizations have already begun but are in the infantile stage and thus the success of these initiatives is entirely unproven. Sotheby’s and Christie’s must decide how to respond to this economic and cultural turning point and whether to keep investing in these ancillary aspects of their operations.


Dees, J. Gregory, Shirley Brice Heath, Laura Smyth. “Artists for Humanity: A Non-Profit Corporation”. Harvard Business School, 2000/2001.

Artists for Humanity (AFH) is a nonprofit that hires 30 to 40 teenagers each year for after-school work and training in the arts and entrepreneurship. The young artists, working in six different studios, make and sell the art they produce. AFH was started in 1990 by local artist Susan Rodgerson and six middle school students in a Boston garage studio; in 1993, they were able to expand and move to two floors of a wharf-area warehouse. At the time of the case, Rodgerson, the executive director, is weighing issues of expansion, staff turnover, and a capital campaign to raise money to secure a building (the warehouse lease ran out in 2001). The case showcases the challenges that face many small nonprofit organizations, and outlines some of the particular characteristics that describe nonprofit organizations that also have an entrepreneurial arm.


Deshpandé, Rohit, and Nicole Tempest Keller. “San Francisco Ballet: On ‘Pointe’ for the Future”.  Harvard Business School, 2020.

The SF Ballet was regarded as one of the top ballet companies in the world. It had an enviable earned revenue percentage of almost 50% and had an internationally recognized ballet school. However, by 2019 the Ballet faced a number of challenges. Ballet was a European art form that had gained popularity in the U.S. a century ago, but the demographics of the U.S. no longer reflected those European roots. In San Francisco, the Ballet had been a favorite pastime of the older, monied set, but the city’s demographics had changed over the last few decades as young Millennials had flocked to San Francisco to join the burgeoning tech industry. The Ballet struggled to attract younger audiences and found itself competing with digital alternatives for how people spent their leisure time. Moreover, to make changes in programming, accessibility, and the Opera House venue to appeal to younger audiences, the Ballet risked alienating its loyal, older donors, who were the lifeblood of the Ballet’s revenue model. Kelly Tweeddale, the newly hired Executive Director, had to consider the interests of various stakeholders––dancers, donors, audience, staff, board, and the local community––which often were at odds with one another. With limited resources, the Ballet needed to choose which changes to tackle first and those decisions were tied to how the organization prioritized its various constituents.


Deshpandé, Rohit. “Street Symphony: Making Human Connections Through Music”. Harvard Business School, 2019.

To Vijay Gupta, music was sacred. A highly accomplished and renowned violinist with The Los Angeles Philharmonic, Gupta believed the act of making and performing music was a deeply spiritual practice – one that had the power to heal audiences and musicians alike.

After years of applause from international audiences for his performances as a soloist, Gupta found himself collaborating with world class musicians that he could call his peers. He spent much of his time rehearsing and performing at LA’s acclaimed Walt Disney Concert Hall. It became Gupta’s second home. He found purpose and satisfaction through artistic collaborations, live musical performances, numerous awards, and being celebrated on a world stage with standing ovations. And then, something changed.


Deshpandé, Rohit, Allen S. Grossman and Ryan Johnson. “The American Repertory Theater”. Harvard Business School, 2011/2015.

When Diane Paulus, artistic director and CEO of the American Repertory Theater (A.R.T.) first started in 2008, she attracted media coverage around an aesthetic that aimed to give the audience more ownership over the theater experience, excited theatergoers by experimenting with new venues and received critical recognition for the breadth and range of the work she staged. Paulus also recognized the changing realities in theater, which included dropping subscription numbers and an increase in single ticket buyers. Paulus, inspired by the mission of the A.R.T.—to expand the boundaries of theater—hastened a shift in the A.R.T. business model. Her new plans included operating two unique segmented venues, creating and presenting varied content that aimed to be both challenging and popular, and driving a sales and marketing campaign focused on single ticket buyers, memberships and dynamic pricing. Early results showed some promise; the A.R.T. was closer to break-even than in previous years. However, some questioned if the A.R.T. was beginning to look like a commercial theater, focused on presenting theater that sold, rather than truly expanding boundaries. Despite the questioning, Paulus remained committed to fulfilling her vision of the A.R.T. mission in order to solidify A.R.T. as a leading and financially stable not-for-profit regional theater.


Deshpandé, Rohit, and Annelena Lobb. “The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra: Cultural Entrepreneurship”. Harvard Business School, 2017.

The Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra (LA Phil), under the leadership of Deborah Borda, had enjoyed great successes in the 2000s and 2010s, even as other U.S. orchestras faltered. The architecturally acclaimed Walt Disney Concert Hall had opened its doors. The institution’s finances looked healthy after years of operating losses. A celebrity music director, Gustavo Dudamel, had joined the team. The LA Phil had launched its Youth Orchestra of Los Angeles (YOLA), a classical-music outreach program. Yet the LA Phil still faced real challenges, as all U.S. orchestras did–an aging subscriber base, concern around appeal to younger audiences, and development of a pipeline of donors for the future. How could Borda continue to position the orchestra for success?


Di Maggio, Paul. “Audience Studies of the Performing Arts and Museums: A Critical Review,” National Endowment for the Arts, 1978.

Based on the analysis of 270 studies pertaining to audiences of the performing arts and visitors to museums, this critical review presents a social profile of the culture consuming public and evaluates the quality and usefulness of audience research.. The review offers the following information arranged in four chapters: a description of the basic demographics of the arts public and a discussion of other issues involved in audience research such as the composition of audiences over time and their economic and political impact; the quality and impact of arts audience studies; an analysis of the organizational factors affecting research utility, including purpose, impact, quality, and the role of research in arts management; and a proposed agenda for arts audience research. Twelve tables are included and appendixes provide a bibliography along with a list of the studies used in the review. 



Elberse, Anita, and Crissy Perez. “The Metropolitan Opera (A)”. Harvard Business School, 2008/2009.

In April 2007, the New York City Metropolitan Opera’s general manager Peter Gelb looks back on the first season of a daring experiment to broadcast performances live in high-definition to movie theaters across North America. While the “Live in HD” program has received mostly positive reviews, there are lingering concerns. Do the benefits of the simulcasts continue to outweigh the possible drawbacks and the significant operational and financial resources?


Elberse, Anita, and Elie Ofek. “Octone Records”. Harvard Business School, 2007/2016.

In February 2007, Octone Records founders James Diener, Ben Berkman, and David Boxenbaum had been highly successful with the first two bands they had signed, Maroon 5 and Flyleaf. Known for its grassroots marketing campaigns, Octone operated through a unique joint-venture model with SonyBMG Music Entertainment’s RCA Music Group, which enabled the nimble record label to orchestrate mass-marketing campaigns once an artist was ready for “prime time.” Octone had been less fortunate, however, with its third act, Michael Tolcher. Despite significant investments, Tolcher’s first full album had not sold enough copies to recover its costs and merit RCA’s marketing support. Octone’s executives faced a decision: whether to continue to support Tolcher’s first album, increase the stakes by financing a second album, or cut their losses and instead focus on other artists. At the same time, Octone had to evaluate a proposal from Universal Music Group to buy out SonyBMG’s interest in the joint venture. Allows for an in-depth examination of new product development and launch strategies in the context of the music industry. Provides rich insights into how grassroots and mass-marketing approaches can facilitate new product/artist development. Octone’s “hybrid” marketing structure is described in considerable detail, and supporting economic data is provided. By enabling an analysis of how long and how aggressively an artist should be supported before commercial success is achieved, serves as a vehicle for contrasting different approaches to the new product development process.


Elberse, Anita, and Jennifer Schoppe. “Hamilton: An American Musical”. Harvard Business School, 2016/2019.

In July 2013, composer, writer, actor and rapper Lin-Manuel Miranda, director Tommy Kail, and producer Jeffrey Seller met to discuss how to launch Hamilton, a new musical based on the life of the first Treasury Secretary of the United States, Alexander Hamilton. With a hip-hop score and an ethnically diverse cast that looked nothing like their historical counterparts, Hamilton was an unlikely candidate for success on Broadway. The trio needed to decide which of two popular routes was best to bring their new musical to Broadway: either take the production straight to Broadway in a ‘cold open,’ or strike an ‘enhancement deal’ with a non-profit theater so the musical could be tested before mounting a more expensive Broadway run. Could a hip-hop musical about a largely forgotten Founding Father be a Broadway blockbuster? And if so, what was the right next step in bringing Hamilton closer toward that goal?


Elberse, Anita, Tsubasa Nakajima, Melissa Rodman. “American Ballet Theatre”. Harvard Business School, 2019.

Kara Medoff Barnett, executive director of American Ballet Theatre (ABT), widely regarded as one of the world’s premier ballet companies, faces several challenges. It is June 2018. Despite its prestige, the company’s $45 million annual budget and $22 million endowment are far below those of peers like New York City Ballet, Paris Opera Ballet, and The Royal Ballet in London. Also, although those institutions rely heavily on talent developed in-house, ABT has traditionally mostly attracted dancers who had been trained elsewhere. Known for having featured some of the world’s most high-profile stars, ABT’s biggest current star is arguably Misty Copeland. What can Barnett learn about Copeland’s rise to fame that could help her have ABT’s other dancers’ stories resonate? Looking to the future of the ballet company more generally, how could Barnett promote a “constellation of stars,” as she puts it, rather than bank on one or two individual superstars? And what is the right balance for ABT between developing and acquiring talent?




Elkins, Caroline, Tarun Khanna and Joyce J. Kim. “iOpenEye: Theater and #MeToo in Nigeria”. Harvard Business School, 2021.

In 2014, Ifeoma Fafunwa, an award-winning playwright and director, founded iOpenEye, a commercial production company dedicated to driving social change through performance art. iOpenEye’s flagship theatrical production was called “Hear Word! Naija Woman Talk True,” which shared narratives of Nigerian women’s struggles. By 2019, “Hear Word!” had debuted internationally, playing sold-out shows at distinguished venues like the American Repertory Theater and at the renowned Edinburgh International Festival. By spring 2020, COVID hit and venues closed, offering Fafunwa new possibilities, such as streaming content and reconsideration of production scale. What steps would it take to have iOpenEye and “Hear Word!” be successful five years down the line? Fafunwa contemplated her next move knowing that whatever it was, it had to be an iOpenEye 2.0 business model.


Fubini, David G., Begum Agca Okutgen, Julia Kelley. “Backstage at Boston Ballet”. Harvard Business School, 2019/2020.

At the beginning of her second year with Boston Ballet, Executive Director Meredith “Max” Hodges got some bad news—a developer had purchased one of Boston Ballet’s school locations and was planning to terminate Boston Ballet’s lease. Hodges had already overseen a number of improvements during her first year with Boston Ballet and had several major projects planned for her second year, including a major website overhaul and a revamped performance schedule. However, without a new school location, Boston Ballet’s revenue would take a hit. Given Boston Ballet’s limited resources and the urgency of the terminated school lease, how should Hodges reprioritize her plans for the upcoming year?


Fung Archon, and Inessa Lurye. “Antanas Mockus: The Prohibition of Fireworks in Bogotá”. Harvard Kennedy School, 2019.

In 1994, Antanas Mockus, an unlikely politician and former President of the prestigious National University of Colombia, became Bogotá’s first independent mayor, bringing with him a unique vision of harmonious citizenship. The city’s new leadership under Mockus, unlike in the past, included academics and researchers, who helped create a raft of new initiatives designed to align public behavior with the rule of law, through education and positive peer influence—or what was known as “citizenship culture.” In his first year, Mockus addressed two big issues plaguing Bogotá, deadly traffic and violence, by using unconventional methods like hiring mimes to control traffic and restricting the sale of alcohol during certain times of year. Mockus later tackled the culture of lighting fireworks—a popular symbol of celebration in Colombia—which typically killed or injured hundreds of adults and children annually.



Fung, Archon, and Inessa Lurye. “Antanas Mockus: The Prohibition of Fireworks in Bogotá – Sequel”.  Harvard Kennedy School, 2019.

In 1994, Antanas Mockus, an unlikely politician and former President of the prestigious National University of Colombia, became Bogotá’s first independent mayor, bringing with him a unique vision of harmonious citizenship. The city’s new leadership under Mockus, unlike in the past, included academics and researchers, who helped create a raft of new initiatives designed to align public behavior with the rule of law, through education and positive peer influence—or what was known as “citizenship culture.” In his first year, Mockus addressed two big issues plaguing Bogotá, deadly traffic and violence, by using unconventional methods like hiring mimes to control traffic and restricting the sale of alcohol during certain times of year. Mockus later tackled the culture of lighting fireworks—a popular symbol of celebration in Colombia—which typically killed or injured hundreds of adults and children annually.



Gee, Edmund, and Peggy Hedges. “Alberta Ballet: Proposal for Growth”.  Harvard Business School, 2015.

Alberta Ballet, composed of the Alberta Ballet professional dance company and The School of Alberta Ballet, had experienced remarkable success in North America and Europe. However, in 2014, it faced a set of unique problems. Demand for performances from the company had grown so significantly that it was no longer able to accommodate all requests, especially from smaller markets in Alberta. Coupled with increasing demand, operations were fragmented across many locations, including some very expensive leases that were set to expire in 2016. Building a brand-new facility that could house all of the Calgary operations was an option, but was it feasible with the current economic conditions? Furthermore, how could Alberta Ballet better serve secondary markets?


Greyser, Stephen A., and David Crockett. “The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston/Fleet Financial Group Sponsorship of Monet in the 20th Century”.  Harvard Business School, 2002.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Boston and Fleet Financial Group’s sponsored the Monet in the 20th Century exhibition, the world’s largest, in 1998. The case chronicles the solicitation of a large corporate sponsor, as well as the growth and development of their partnership. Includes color exhibits.


Grossman, Allen, and Coleman Radell. “Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts: Alternative Futures”.  Harvard Business School, 2011.

Ren Levy took over Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts when it was a group of warring constituents and has successfully brought a diverse group of arts organizations together.


Groysberg, Boris, Joel Podolny, Timothy Keller. “Fernwood Art Investments: Leading in an Imperfect Marketplace”. Harvard Business School, 2004/2006.

As Bruce Taub, founder of Fernwood, strolled past some of New York City’s finest galleries, he pondered the unique challenges that Fernwood faced. Where others had seen the inefficiency of imperfect markets, Taub saw an opportunity to revolutionize the very nature of how Americans related to the fine art market. As its chairman and founder, Taub had built Fernwood to serve as a vehicle for his vision: to democratize investment in art such that “even my secretary could someday own (shares of art) in her 401(k).” As Taub walked through the doors at Christies, he knew that in the near future, he was going to decide the path that would initially guide Fernwood toward investors. He also knew that at least in the short-term, he needed the support of the art community, and he wondered what else he could or should do to win that support.


Hackman, J. Richard, Erin Lehman, Adam Galinsky, Maury Peiperl. “London Symphony Orchestra (B)”. Harvard Business School, 2002.


Hanley, Mary Stone, George W. Noblit, Tom Barone, Gilda L. Sheppard. Culturally relevant arts education for social justice: a way out of no way.  Routledge, 2013.


Hardymon, G. Felda, Josh Lerner, Ann Leamon. “Christo and Jeanne-Claude: The Art of the Entrepreneur”.  Harvard Business School, 2006.

Christo and Jeanne-Claude, the artists who created The Gates in New York City in 2005, are trying to decide how best to finance their next project. Over the River, a project to drape sections of the Arkansas River with translucent fabric is a very different enterprise from The Gates. Bank Leu, the Swiss back that had provided a line of credit for The Gates, has declined the opportunity to participate in Over the River. As Christo and Jeanne-Claude review the Bank Leu vehicle, they must consider whether it is replicable to other projects and institutions or whether they should consider a different approach.


Hezlinger, Regina E. “Metropolitan Museum of Art–1972”. Harvard Business School, 1978/1991.


Hill, Linda A., and Emily Stecker. “Kit Hinrichs at Pentagram (A)”. Harvard Business School, 2008.

This case focuses on Kit Hinrichs, a 65-year-old partner at Pentagram, a privately owned multidisciplinary design firm. One of the world’s most prestigious design firms, Pentagram was founded by five designers from different disciplines in London in the 1970s. By 2008, Pentagram remained small, with less than 30 partners, each a veritable star in his or her own right. Pentagram had two founding principles, the first of which was equality. The equality principle meant that leadership was evenly distributed; partners with seniority had no greater formal authority than newer partners, and the only formal leadership role was a chairman position, which, after being held with a founder for 30 years, was rotated every two years. Further, Pentagram had no corporate office; each partner was expected to manage his or her own financial, marketing, and human resource functions. Pentagram’s second principle was generosity. All partners were equal shareholders in the firm. Pentagram branched out to New York in the early 1980s, and in the late 1980s, Hinrichs established a San Francisco location. This case traces Hinrichs as he builds Pentagram’s San Francisco office, and it also details the evolution of Pentagram itself. In addition, this case offers a thick description of Hinrichs and his team working with a client. This case can be used in business and executive education courses on professional service firms, leading a creative organization, and the role of design in business. It should also be used by schools of design.


Hill, TL, Sheri Lambert, Kathryn J. Ready. “APY Art Centre Collective: Taking Indigenous Art to the City”. Harvard Business School, 2021.

In early 2019, just a year after opening a gallery in Sydney, Australia, the elders of the APY Art Centre Collective proposed opening a second gallery in Adelaide, a much smaller city. The first year in Sydney had been profitable, in part due to an aggressive digital presence. The Collective had some seed money, an offer of a small gallery space, and the draw of serving a large number of the APY community who were residents in Adelaide. But the Adelaide art market was tiny compared to Sydney’s, staff was stretched thin, and budgets were tight. The board’s vision was certainly compelling, but was it practical? Could a digital strategy help Adelaide’s success without cannibalizing the Collective’s success in Sydney? What would such a strategy look like?


Hollingsbee, Emily. “Tomorrow we make it better’: an art therapist’s reflection on a community mural in a refugee camp in Greece”. International Journal of Art Therapy, 2019.

This paper will explore an art therapist facilitated mural within a refugee camp in Greece. It will present literature regarding a ‘psychosocial’ frame of art therapy and its considered relevance when working with refugee populations, drawing particular attention to theory on working cross culturally, outside the art therapy room, and the art making process. It will describe the context and present a vignette that reflects on the author’s own challenges and discoveries within the mural project that may indicate its significance within the art therapy field. The discussion will explore the possible benefits and value of art mural practice, including thoughts on symbolism within the process and final image. Limitations and further recommendations will be explored and considered. The paper will conclude that a psychosocial approach provides an appropriate framework for art therapists working with refugees and that community murals may hold therapeutic value that could be further explored with primary research and data gathered from participants to expand the discussion of its relevance as a practice within the field. The implications of this paper are that future research into art therapist facilitated community murals is possible within a similar framework and can be used when working with a community of people who have experienced displacement in order to address some of the psychological and social needs.


Howitt, Arnold M., David L. Tannenwald. “Recovery in Aurora: The Public Schools’ Response to the July 2012 Movie Theater Shooting (A).” Harvard Kennedy School, 2014.

In July 2012, a gunman entered a movie theater in Aurora, Colorado and opened fire, killing 12 people, injuring 58 others, and traumatizing a community. This case briefly describes the shooting and emergency response but focuses primarily on the recovery process in the year that followed. In particular, it highlights the work of the Aurora Public Schools, which under the leadership of Superintendent John L. Barry, drew on years of emergency management training to play a substantial role in the response and then unveiled an expansive recovery plan. This included hiring a full-time disaster recovery coordinator, partnering with an array of community organizations, and holding mental health workshops and other events to support APS community members. The case also details the range of reactions that staff and community members had to APS’ efforts, broader community-wide recovery efforts, and stakeholders’ perspectives on the effectiveness of the recovery.


Ittelson, Mary, Amir Goldberg, Kara Riopelle. “The Joffrey Ballet”. Harvard Business School, 2016.

The Joffrey Ballet is a landmark Chicago nonprofit performing arts organization that helped shape the landscape of American ballet. In 2016, the Joffrey was at a point of transformation after a period of financial crisis and artistic decline. It had successfully raised $4 million for the widely anticipated new production of the Nutcracker. With annual revenues at around $20 million, this production represented a significant investment, and the organization needed to continue its artistic momentum while maintaining fiscal responsibility. The leadership team decided to launch an $80 to $120 all-funds campaign to ensure the artistic and financial health of the organization. Known for its diversity, the Joffrey Ballet had a history of balancing highly athletic performances of canonical works with boundary-blurring new ballets. Founded in New York City in 1954, it carved a niche as the distinctly American company in the ballet ecosystem known for its classical European influences. After its relocation to Chicago in 1995, the ballet relied upon its New York reputation in the face of financial and artistic woes. By 2016, however, the Joffrey Ballet was poised to reemerge as a major player in the national and international dance landscape. It had just celebrated its 60th anniversary and its 20th year in Chicago, and the leadership team debated the essential areas for investment going forward. The endowment, currently at about $1.4 million as of June 30, 2016, needed to be grown. The profitable Academy needed more space and funds to grow, while Community Engagement programs offered the potential for impact in the community. Programming large-scale works from the most important choreographers was essential but costly. In order to attract donors and secure the Joffrey’s future, the organization needed to craft a compelling fundraising case supported by a sound business plan.


Hackman, Richard, Erin Lehman, Adam Galinsky, Maury Peiperl. “London Symphony Orchestra (A)”.  Harvard Business School, 2000.


Khanna, Tarun,  Anjali Raina. “Aadhaar: India’s ‘Unique Identification’ System”. Harvard Business School, 2012.

The case focuses on the execution challenges facing Nandan Nilekani, the Chairman, and Ram Sevak Sharma, Director General and Mission Director of the Unique Identification Authority of India. India had no nationally accepted way to prove identity and hence 42% of the population at the base of the pyramid had to resort to bribery to access entitlements, while a web of fake or multiple identities facilitated criminal diversion of government subsidies. UIDAI was tasked to deliver a unique identification number to every Indian resident. This involved the issue of a total of 1.2 billion unique IDs by 2020 and an interim goal of 600 million UIDs by 2014 – the largest data management program in the world. The case deals with the challenge of implementing a towering vision, of executing on an epic technology project, and of changing minds on an unprecedented scale. It examines the forces that both facilitate and derail change. It also examines the leadership style and motivation of Nilekani, and the transition in skills required to move from building a global organization to working within the Indian bureaucracy.

This case is accompanied by a Video Short that can be shown in class or included in a digital coursepack. Instructors should consider the timing of making the video available to students, as it may reveal key case details.


Khanna, Tarun, Jenn Chang. “El Sistema”. Harvard Business School. 2019

El Sistema explores an NGO that changes the life of thousands of young people in Venezuela and around the world through musical education.



Khanna,Tarun, Dennis Yao, Hillary Greene, Amrita Chowdhury. “Jaipur Literature Festival – Beyond the Festival Template”. Harvard Business School. 2011

Jaipur Literature Festival (JLF), dubbed “the greatest literary show on earth” was an annual event held in late January at the Diggi Palace in Jaipur. JLF provided a platform for international authors and Indian language authors from the subcontinent to engage in a literary dialogue. By 2011, JLF attracted the largest festival audience in the Asian Pacific region with approximately 60,000 visitors from 24 countries. It featured 224 speakers in 140 sessions, and 100 musicians in 20 concerts. Success had already changed the character of the festival from the earlier more intimate days and had created a momentum that, if not managed correctly, could compromise goals such as the democratic ethos of the festival. While JLF had achieved explosive growth and critical success, its expenses still exceeded its revenue. Could JLF find an organizational and financial “template” which could sutain the festival into the future?


Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. “Strategy as Improvisational Theater”. MIT Sloan Management Review, 2002.

New technologies pose uncertainties for businesses, including the possibility of radical change. Some companies seize the opportunity to outpace competitors while others fall behind, as history clearly demonstrates. That in itself is unremarkable; the important question is, What distinguishes the pacesetters from the laggards?


Kaplan, Robert S., and Dennis Campbell. “Boston Lyric Opera”. Harvard Business School, 2001.

The Boston Lyric Opera was the fastest growing opera company in North America during the 1990s. Having successfully completed a move to a larger facility in 1999, the board and general director recognize the need to develop a formal strategic planning and governance process to guide the company into the future. Board members, senior managers, and artistic leaders use the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as the focus of a multi-month strategic planning process that develops a strategy map and objectives in the four BSC perspectives for three core strategic themes. This case describes the high-level scorecard development, its cascading down to departments and individuals and the directors’ interactions–using the Balanced Scorecard–with the artistic leaders and board of directors.


Kennelly, James, and Liza Nagode. “Tradition and Transformation at the Spanish Riding School of Vienna”.  Harvard Business School, 2016.

The Spanish Riding School (SRS) was an icon of Austrian national identity, the oldest riding school in the world and the primary exponent of the art of classical dressage (a “ballet” with horses). In 2012, 447 years after its founding, the School confronted a serious threat: how to survive its so-called “privatization” by the Austrian government. Elisabeth Gürtler, recently reappointed to a five-year term as Managing Director needed to address three interrelated challenges: how to counter the critics of the SRS and its leadership and the avalanche of bad press they had generated, how to consolidate the significant organizational changes she had implemented during her first five years as Managing Director, and how to generate additional revenue so that the SRS would continue to breakeven financially – and in the long run, achieving financial sustainability for the SRS and preserving both its exalted status as the world’s foremost institution of classical dressage and its responsibility to preserve and improve the breed of Lipizzaner horses. Since her appointment (on a 5-year contract) in December, 2007, Gürtler had acted quickly to implement a series of initiatives aimed at reducing costs, increasing revenue, and improving organizational capabilities. While these changes appeared to be successful at staunching the SRS’s financial losses, they were not without cost. Internally, a number of experienced riders had strongly resisted the changes and had been subsequently dismissed; externally, critics had initiated a media campaign claiming that the quality of the SRS’s performances had declined and been “debased” as a consequence of the changes. As Gürtler looks to her second term as Managing Director, students are asked to evaluate her organizational change efforts, and consider her strategic options going forward.


Khaire, Mukti, and Kathleen L. McGinn. “SEWA Trade Facilitation Center: Changing the Spool”. Harvard Business School, 2010/2011.

The case is about the decision to convert a not-for-profit organization into a for-profit company. SEWA Trade Facilitation Center (STFC), which is part of a larger non-profit organization—the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)—works to improve the livelihoods of very poor rural and urban women in India. It does so by translating traditional Indian embroidery skills into contemporary apparel and home furnishings that STFC then helps to market and sell around the world. Organized as a producers’ cooperative, STFC is owned by its artisan members. STFC is thinking of changing to for-profit status because it would enable faster and more sustainable growth by providing access to outside funds and also allow the payment of dividends, which would further improve the women’s livelihoods. The legal and financial implications of such a move aside, it is not clear that STFC would be able to withstand the changes such a transformation would entail. Most importantly, would an organization accustomed to taking decisions based solely on social benefit criteria be able to adjust to a for-profit mentality? And, would customers accept the change?


Kim, W. Chan, Renee Mauborgne, Ben M. Bensaou, Matt Williamson. “Even a Clown Can Do It: Cirque du Soleil Recreates Live Entertainment (B) ”.  INSEAD, 2008.

This is the second of a two-case series. Cirque du Soleil very successfully entered a structurally unattractive circus industry. It was able to reinvent the industry and created a new market space by challenging the conventional assumptions about how to compete. It value innovated by shifting the buyer group from children (end-users of the traditional circus) to adults (purchasers of the traditional circus), drawing upon the distinctive strengths of other alternative industries, such as the theatre, Broadway shows and the opera, to offer a totally new set of utilities to more mature and higher spending customers. **ecch European Case Awards Category Winner 2008**


Kling, Jim. “Want to Communicate Better?: Try Role Playing”. Harvard Business Publishing Newsletters, 2000.


Koehn, Nancy F., Katherine Miller, Rachel Wilcox. “Bono and U2”. Harvard Business School, 2009/2012.

This case traces the 30-year development of the rock band U2 and the development of its four members as artists, business leaders, and humanitarians (with particular attention paid to lead singer Bono’s global humanitarian work). The case examines the beginnings of the band among four school friends and follows the development of the enterprise as a business and as a powerful social and cultural force in its own right. It also investigates the individual journeys of the band members during moments of great success and significant challenges. The case pays particular attention to the four men’s evolving identities as musical artists and to the tradeoffs that have accompanied their fame and larger social commitments. The case takes up the evolution of the global music industry in the face of rapid technological and organizational change, examining how U2 and colleagues navigated such change, built a very powerful brand, and created a successful business model. The final part of the case traces lead singer Bono’s involvement in political and humanitarian causes and the potential power of such a model as a framework for artistry, entrepreneurship, and effective leadership in the 21st century.


Lange, Katharina. “Pina Bausch: Leadership as collective genius”. ESMT – European School of Management & Technology, 2012.

The case starts in 1973 when Pina Bausch stood at the turning point of her professional career: the transition from being a celebrated dancer to becoming a choreographer. Reflecting on what made Pina Bauschs career as a dancer exceptional, the case then elucidates Pina Bausch´s leadership and working style during her years as artistic director at the Tanztheater Wuppertal. Not only did Pina Bausch become famous for her artistic work and creative productivity, but also for her way of leading people and making them grow long-term. Her capability of leveraging the diversity of her dancers – the collective genius – made her choreographies inherently innovative and ground-breaking. Demanding highest performance, she created one of the most successful companies worldwide. She died 2009, leaving behind a dedicated and outstanding dance theater.


Leonard, Dorothy A., and Brian DeLacey. “Solagen: Process Improvement in the Manufacture of Gelatin at Kodak”.  Harvard Business School, 1986/2007.

Kodak must decide whether to make a major investment in a production facility designed around a new technique for producing the gelatin critical to so many film and paper products. Currently, gelatin making is an arcane art, unchanged in 150 years and heavily dependent upon the sensory skills of experienced foreman. The new process, in a pilot stage now, is a chemical reaction which reduces the process time for one step from 6 months to 48 hours and which is much more “scientific.” However, the old plant is fully paid for, the new process is only one potential avenue for improvement, and demand for gelatin is falling.


Levy, Reynold, and Daniella Ballou. “ Roundabout Theatre Co. (A)”. Harvard Business School, 2002.

Todd Haimes is the artistic director of the Roundabout, a non profit theatre. He must decide if he is willing to accept a large sponsorship from American Airlines and, in doing so, allow the airline to the name the Roundabout’s new Broadway theatre. In making this decision, he must consider the perspective of multiple constituencies, including other senior managers, the board, customers, donors, and the press. He also needs to assess the financial alternatives that exist to American Airlines’ sponsorship and assess their attractiveness for the Roundabout and the organization’s various constituencies. Also provides the opportunity to explore the perspective of American Airlines and its choice to sponsor the Roundabout Theatre. Like the Roundabout, American must also weigh the potential costs and benefits before going ahead with the sponsorship.



Margolis, Joshua D., Fernanda Miguel. “Cinépolis”. Harvard Business School, 2021.

Two weeks after Cinepolis released a documentary film about corruption, a judge ordered its provisional suspension, claiming it had to be edited before it continued to be shown, against Mexican cinematography laws. Cinépolis, Latin America’s largest movie theater chain and the fourth largest in the world, welcoming 134 million moviegoers in 2011, had never distributed a film in its 40-plus years of existence, nor had there ever been an instance of pro-bono distribution in Mexico. Presumed Guilty, the country’s highest grossing documentary, not only achieved commercial success but also fueled a revolution in Mexico’s judicial system. Alejandro (as he was called by everyone who worked with him) knew he faced a difficult decision. What risks would Cinépolis run if he chose to fight for freedom of speech? How far was he willing to take such a fight?


McGee, Henry, Rohit Deshpandé and Sarah Gulick. “Jeffrey Deitch: Art Entrepreneur”. Harvard Business School, 2020.

Jeffrey Deitch is an influential gallery owner and art entrepreneur. An HBS alumnus generally credited with developing the field of bank art advisory and financing services, Deitch has had a storied career in both the commercial and non-profit art world. Wrestling with industry consolidation and rapidly changing consumer tastes, Deitch must decide on his next entrepreneurial venture in the arts.


McGinnis, Sean R., and Lew G. Brown. “The Broach Theatre”. North American Case Research Association (NACRA), 2007.


O’Shea, Eamonand, and Áine Ní Léime. “The impact of the Bealtaine arts programme on the quality of life, wellbeing and social interaction of older people in Ireland”. Ageing & Society, 2012.

There is increasing evidence in the international literature that engagement in the arts can enhance the physical and psychological wellbeing of older people. Such engagement can increase the self-confidence and morale of older people and provide opportunities for increased social connections, leading to higher levels of social cohesion. This article is based on an evaluation of a national arts festival in Ireland called Bealtaine that celebrates creativity in older people each year during the month of May. The festival is unique in the wide range of arts-related activities it includes and the different types of organisations involved, such as local authorities, libraries, educational institutions, health and social care organisations, and voluntary bodies for older people. It includes both long-standing professionally facilitated arts programmes and one-off events at local and national levels. The evaluation used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse two major postal surveys with organisers and consumers of the festival and face-to-face interviews with older participants, artists and organisers. The findings are overwhelmingly positive in terms of the personal and social gains arising from participation in the festival. In this context, the study provides support for the provision of enhanced and sustained funding for creative programmes for older people and, more generally, for the development of an integrated policy for older people and the arts in the country.


Narayan, V. G. “The Music Academy, Madras”. Harvard Business School, 2018.
Petriglieri, Gianpiero. “Business Does Not Need the Humanities – But Humans Do”. Harvard Business Review Digital Article, 2018.

Calls to humanize business are not new. From Elton Mayo to Charles Handy, leading thinkers have called for a role for the humanities in mitigating technology’s relentlessness and the efficiency’s ruthlessness. But therein lies the problem: relegating the humanities to a proscribed “role” reduces them to a useful instrument, which strips them of what makes them special. Poetry is not a productivity hack, and a novel is not a means to an end of increased EQ. Embracing humanity means asking more fundamental questions: what if inconvenience and discomfort, boredom and distractions, are features and not bugs of a good life? What if social fragmentation and dearth of meaning in the workplace are not symptoms of what is not working, but side effects of what works? That is, unintended outcomes of our obsession with solving problems and cutting a profit? These are the questions that only the humanities can help us answer. Sometimes it is useful to move fast and break things. Other times it is wise to move slow and heal people.


Poorvu, William J. “Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum”. Harvard Business School, 1994.


Sacco, Pier Luigi.Culture 3.0: A new perspective for the EU 2014-2020 structural funds programming”. EENC Paper, April 2011

This document has been prepared by Pier Luigi Sacco on behalf of the European Expert Network on Culture (EENC). Produced for the OMC working Group on Cultural and Creative Industries. This paper reflects the views only of the EENC authors and the European Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. The EENC was set up in 2010 at the initiative of Directorate-General for Education and Culture of the European Commission (DG EAC), with the aim of contributing to the improvement of policy development in Europe. It provides advice and support to DG EAC in the analysis of cultural policies and their implications at national, regional and European levels. The EENC involves 17 independent experts and is coordinated by Interarts and Culture Action Europe.


Sacco, Pier Luigi, Enzo Grossi • Giorgio Tavano Blessi, Massimo Buscema. “The Interaction Between Culture, Health and Psychological Well-Being: Data Mining from the Italian Culture and Well-Bein Project”. Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of health status and cultural participation upon psychological well-being, with special attention to the interaction between patterns of cultural access and other factors known to affect psychological well-being. Data for this report were collected from a sample of 1,500 Italian citizens. A multi-step random sampling method was adopted to draw a large representative sample from the Italian population. Subjects underwent a standard questionnaire for psychological well-being [the Italian short form of the Psychological General Well Being Index (PGWBI)], and a questionnaire related to the frequency of participation to 15 different kinds of cultural activities during the previous year. The results show that, among the various potential factors considered, cultural access unexpectedly rankes as the second most important determinant of psychological well-being, immediately after the absence or presence of diseases, and outperforming factors such as job, age, income, civil status, education, place of living and other important factors. According to a semantic map generated by a powerful data mining algorithm, it turns out that different factors (among which cultural access and health status in particular) may be viewed as concurrent elements of a complex multi-causal scheme that seems to play a primary role in determining psychological distress or well-being. In particular, distress seems to be tightly connected with: living in the Southern part of Italy, average income level, living in semi-urban and urban areas, age group 46–60, presence of more than two concomitant diseases and a low level of cultural access. Well being, on the other hand, is tightly connected with: male gender, high cultural access, and absence of diseases. Some of these associations are confirmed by Principal Component Analysis.

More from Pier Luigi Sacco


Salter, Malcom S. “Boston Symphony Orchestra”. Harvard Business School, 1975/1983.


Sasser, W. Earl. “Boston Ballet”. Harvard Business School, 1988.


Smużny, Wiesław. “On the Margin of the Programme Slogans of Social Art after Eight Years of Implementing the Pro-social Artistic Stand”.  Warsaw: Polska Akademia Nauk, Instytut Sztuki, 2019.


Sommer, Doris “A Case for Culture,MLA Profession, Winter 2019

The case method is common in practically every field of academic research. Cases identify a problem and then evaluate intervention techniques. If we dared, we could use this method to respond to humanistic worries by designing hybrid essays that combine approaches from the humanities and social sciences. A case for culture might include the following stages: Identify a social challenge. Study its causes and context. Speculate on possible interventions. Implement an intervention. Design ways to measure impact and reflect on results.


Spiegel, J.B, B. Ortiz Choukroun, A. Campana, K.M Boydell, J. Breilh, A. Yassi. “Social transformation, collective health and community-based arts: ‘Buen Vivir’ and Ecuador’s social circus programme”. Global Public Health, 2019.

Worldwide, interest is increasing in community-based arts to promote social transformation. This study analyzes one such case. Ecuador’s government, elected in 2006 after decades of neoliberalism, introduced Buen Vivir (‘good living’ derived from the Kichwan sumak kawsay), to guide development. Plans included launching a countrywide programme using circus arts as a sociocultural intervention for street-involved youth and other marginalised groups. To examine the complex ways by which such interventions intercede in ‘ways of being’ at the individual and collective level, we integrated qualitative and quantitative methods to document relationships between programme policies over a 5-year period and transformations in personal growth, social inclusion, social engagement and health-related lifestyles of social circus participants. We also conducted comparisons across programmes and with youth in other community arts. While programmes emphasising social, collective and inclusive pedagogy generated significantly better wellbeing outcomes, economic pressures led to prioritising productive skill-building and performing. Critiques of the government’s operationalisation of Buen Vivir, including its ambitious technical goals and pragmatic economic compromising, were mirrored in social circus programmes. However, the programme seeded a grassroots social circus movement. Our study suggests that creative programmes introduced to promote social transformation can indeed contribute significantly to nurturing a culture of collective wellbeing.